ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OWER EXPLORATION OF GROUNDWATER AROUND KARAPINAR IN TURKEY

Adnan Ozdemir, Mehmet Emin Aydın

Abstract


Karapinar is the region that receives the least precipitation and experiences the severest aridity in Turkey. While the average precipitation in Turkey is 625 mm per year, it is 286 mm per year for Karapinar region. High amount of arable lands and large grasslands of Karapinar contributed to the development of the agriculture and stock farming of the district. All the water consumed for irrigation, stock farming, drinking, service and other purposes is supplied from underground. The developed agriculture and stock farming in the region, a lot of irrigated farming activities, growing crops that are not suitable for the climate of the region and require so much water, and inappropriate irrigation procedures cause excessive extraction of ground water. Extereme amount of ground water extraction was resulted the ground water level to drop. In this study, the impacts of the decrease in the ground water level due to excessive extraction on the environment are investigated and evaluated considering Karapinar case. In Karapinar district, due to the decrease in the ground water level, the lakes classified as natural heritage have dried up, wetlands disappeared, the developed sinkholes started to threaten the local people, sinkhole development damaged the cultivable farm lands.

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